Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry:

Head: Albus Dumbledore (until his death)
Houses: Gryffindor, Ravenclaw, Slytherin, Hufflepuff
Location: Scotland, U.K.
Castle: Large with over 7 stories and many towers. It has fairly large grounds with a quidditch pitch, a lake, and has the forbidden forest at the edge of the grounds.
Uniform: Black robes. They also have dress robes for special occasions.

Durmstrang Institute:

Head: Igor Karkaroff (until his death)
Location: Somewhere in Europe.
Castle: Has 4 floors and is smaller than Hogwarts, however it has more land.
Uniform: Furs and thick clothing (very cold there)
Notes: They attend the Triwizard tournament in Book 4 and their champion is Victor Krum, who comes in 3rd place. It does not admit muggle borns and is very into the dark arts.

Beauxbatons Academy of Magic:

Head: Olympe Maxime
Location: France
Castle: Has ice sculptures around the dining chamber at Christmas with wood nymphs that serenade around the students as they eat.
Uniform: Made of silk that are pale blue
Notes: Their coat of arms has 2 golden wands crossed, each admitting 3 stars.

Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry

The great North American school of magic was founded in the seventeenth century. It stands at the highest peak of Mount Greylock, where it is concealed from non-magic gaze by a variety of powerful enchantments, which sometimes manifest in a wreath of misty cloud.
Head: Unknown
Houses: Horned Serpent, Wampus, Thunderbird, Pukwudgie
Location: Massachusetts, USA
Castle: Marble statues of Isolt and James flank the front doors of Ilvermorny Castle. The doors open onto a circular room topped by a glass cupola. A wooden balcony runs around the room one floor above.
Uniform: Blue and cranberry. Robes are fastened by a gold Gordian Knot, in memory of the brooch Isolt found in the ruins of the original Ilvermorny cottage.

Salem’s Witches Institute:

An American School that was mentioned in Book 4, as Harry, Ron, and Hermione passed by some American witches.